IBM SPSS Statistics

Ranking Data in IBM SPSS Statistics

December 16, 2019

Ranking Data in IBM SPSS Statistics

This article speaks about the Ranking data in IBM Statistics.

What is the ranking?

Ranking can be defined as the relationship between a set of items such as two or more data. In the ranking, it is always the first data that is ranked higher or lower. In other words, if the two items are ranked in such a way that the first is either “ranked equal to” or “ranked higher than” or “ranked lower than” to the second item.

Ranking in the SPSS Statistics

IBM SPSS Statics ranks the cases in such a way that the cases start to automatically define the new variables to contain ranks, savage score and normal, and the percentile to the variables to the selected numeric.

SPSS deliberately generates new variable names and descriptive variables. These variables are generated based on the original variables, along with the selected measures. The ranking also produces a table that consists of the summary listing the original variables, new variables, and the variables labels.

Ranking the cases

If you want to rank the cases, then you need to direct to the transform and then to Rank Cases {Transform>Rank Cases} from the menu. The Rank Cases dialogue provides you multiple options like selecting one or more variables to rank, Rank cases in ascending or descending order, organize ranking into subgroups, selecting one or more grouping variables for the “By list”.

Rank cases types

There are multiple ranking methods in IMB SPSS Statistics. They are

  • Rank: Simple rank. It is the value of the new variable equals its rank.
  • Savage score: The new variable contains Savage scores based on an exponential distribution.
  • Fractional rank: The value of the new variable equals rank divided by the sum of the weights of the non-missing cases.

Ranking the cases

  • Fractional rank as a per cent: Each rank is divided by the number of cases with valid values.
  • Sum of case weights: the sum of the case weight is always equal to the value of the new variable. If it is in the same group, then the new variables are constant for all the cases.
  • Ntiles: Ranks are always based on the percentile groups. Here each group containing approximately the same number of the cases can be found. For example, rank one will be assigned to the cases that are below 25th percentile, and rank two is assigned to the percentile between 20 to 50, and so on.
  • Proportion estimates: calculation of the cumulative proportion of the distribution corresponds to a very partial ranking scale.
  • Normal scores: The cumulative proportion estimates z scores.
  • Total preorder: A total preorder is one which defines a ranking when two pair is found incomparable.

Rank Ties

The Rank case Tile monitors the process of assigning a ranking to cases with the same value on the original variable. There are four different methods, and they are Mean, Low, High, Sequential ranks to unique values. They can be assigned based on the values of the variables.



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August 13, 2019

Maths can be a difficult subject to learn, but if you put in the right practice and skills in the right, you can easily approach the subject in a new light. Although it is difficult to learn and solve problems but absorbing the vast amount of information is also a tough task, but with some tips from us, you can easily improve your maths skills. Being efficient in the maths subject requires a lot of hard work and patience. Some ways you can improve maths skills include:

Focus on understanding concepts

Understanding the concept requires you to memorize the formulas and rules that complete the maths problems. Although it is difficult to learn new problems with the amount of information being passed on but taking time to understand them can help improve you maths skills greatly.

Solve extra problems

Practice is especially important when it comes to solving maths problems; you can easily improve your knowledge by working on additional problems. This helps by simplifying the problem and moving forward, which can give you a simpler way to find the solution.

Go over new concepts

Do not just jump and try to solve the problems; this can be frustrating. First, try to study your textbooks and pay attention to the classes. If you still think that you are not able to finish your assignment you can pay someone to do your math homework which will give you solutions which you can refer to later on.

Change word problems up

There are many students out there who have difficulty understanding the math word problems. There are many ways you can easily understand them by reading out loud, draw the problems out to make it easier for you to visualize it, which can help in improving your maths skills.

Apply maths to real life

Maths all around us and you need to understand why and how maths is important and how can it be applied in your daily life. There many real-world examples where maths needs to be considered from sharing a cake to cutting a pipe. Try to apply the knowledge of maths you have in the real-world and understand during what circumstances will it come in handy.

Study online

Checking out any online study options which will help you get your maths skills to improve is probably one of the best ways to go about trying to understand the difficulties one face during understanding mathematical concepts. There many individual courses that these online courses offer which can be beneficial for improving your overall maths skills.…

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Electricity For Businesses

June 26, 2019

Businesses and homes use electricity in a different way. Retail electricity providers (REPs) utilize what’s known as a “load profile” for every kind of customer to know exactly how to charge them. Each of these load profiles shows what the average residential customer or a small commercial customer uses during every month of the year and also the time of every day. The electricity rate for a house assumes around 60% of usage for heating, and cooling purposes and also more power is used during the summer and winter months when the weather is either too hot or too cold, depending on the location. This can be the same in the offices of businesses. Offices have to maintain a proper temperature for the employees so that they can do their work in a decent environment.

A business will certainly require more electricity than a home; no matter how big the house is because businesses need to have machines running all the time. Some of these machines are fans, huge lights, air conditioning, thermostats, etc. These are some of the most essential things that a business need to always keep running. The electricity costs for them will surely be incredibly expensive. To get clear idea you can compare business electricity at One of the best-known ways to save on electricity and also other energy costs is by cutting back on the consumption. Whatever kind of business you may be in, there are surely plenty of opportunities to have savings by reducing the costs of energy. Most businesses reduce the bill by 10-20% by just turning off some unnecessary things which are constantly running in the office. Another factor that can play a role in the size of your bill would be the location. If you are located in metropolitan areas, then you can expect it to be expensive. For example, if you are located in cities like New York, Los Angeles, London, San Francisco, etc. which are one of the most well-known cities in the world, your electricity is undoubtedly going to be expensive.

Another great alternative would be to install solar panels on your commercial building. So many companies are adopting this method. One of the biggest brands in the world, Apple has come out and said that all of their manufacturing facilities and also their flagship stores are proudly using 100% renewable and green electricity which they acquire in the form of hydro turbines, wind warms or from solar farms. They have set up huge solar farms in deserts where there is an abundance of sunlight, these solar panels are also weatherproof, and therefore, there would be not a lot of issues. It is an amazing path to follow, and it is amazing for the environment as well.…

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Capture amazing pictures during your visit to Oahu

July 25, 2017

Oahu is one of the most wonderful places to visit. Oahu is a beautiful island in the Hawaii and it makes your visit full of fun and enjoyments. People who visit Hawaii never return to their homes until they visit this beautiful island in the Hawaii.

There are many beautiful spots where you can capture images with your friends and family to make it a memorable tour. Parasailing and Helicopter tours are very famous in Oahu and the guides will definitely suggest you give it a try because it’s the most valuable experience that you may have in the Oahu.

Natural Beauty

The natural beauty of Oahu is worth watching and you must capture as many pictures as you want at different beautiful spots. If you’re traveling alone, you may ask some other visitors to capture your image for you and if you can’t find someone there who may capture your image for you, you should take some selfies to capture the beautiful looks of nature.

Selfies may not provide you the opportunity to capture the actual beauty of the area because it’s hard to cover a wide area when you’re taking a selfie. You must carry a tripod with you if you’re not taking anyone else with you or if you don’t have a tripod, you may place your camera at an accurate angle and then put it on auto mode to capture the image.

Helicopter tours

Helicopter tours of Oahu are very famous and people always love trying these tours because these tours allow them to see the nature from an average height. You may also capture the images of the wild animals that appear during the helicopter flights.

There are several routes of Helicopter tours that are worth visiting, therefore, it’s better that you get the sufficient information about Helicopter tours of Oahu before going there. Find out more about these Oahu tours in Hawaii here.


Parasailing is an amazing sport and visitors love trying it when they’re visiting Oahu. You can Capture a lot of images during this new experience. This experience of parasailing will help you feel more fresh and energetic. And the beauty that you can see during parasailing is amazing.

The pictures captured with your loved one during the parasailing will make it a memorable tour forever.


There are different foods that you can eat in Oahu but we recommend you to try some barbecue kind of foods or some sea food to make it a great experience for you. If you’re wishing to try barbecue then you should try it in the evening with your friends and family.

You can get barbecue from different restaurants as well but it will be great if you prepare the food at your own because it will let you enjoy amazing moments with your friends and family.

If you want more information on why Oahu is a great place to visit and why the culture is so attractive, click here.

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